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BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY 

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No. 98 







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ANNUAL REPORT 



OF THE 



DIRECTOR OF 
LIVESTOCK DISEASE CONTROL 



FOR THE 



Year Ending November 30, 1938 




Publication of this Document Approved by the Commission on Administration and Finance. 
700-5-'39. No. 7248 



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DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 

DIVISION OF LIVESTOCK DISEASE CONTROL " 

To the Commissioner of Agriculture : 

The report of the Division of Livestock Disease Control for the year ending 
November 30, 1938, is presented herewith. 

The appearance of two diseases contagious to animals and not previously encoun- 
tered in the State — encephalomyelitis in horses and anthrax in mink — together with 
new legislation enacted during the year relative to blood test requirements on cattle 
received from outside the State and to calfhood vaccination, all have had an effect 
on the activities of the Division. 

The work in the eradication, prevention, and control of bovine tuberculosis has 
progressed satisfactorily and resulted in a further reduction in the yearly total number 
of reactors to the tuberculin test. 

Rabies, which last year was causing concern because of its gradual increase, took 
a decided "about face," with the result that this year shows the lowest number of 
cases reported any year since 191 7. 

On September 27 a conference on encephalomyelitis was held at the office of the 
Division, at which there were present veterinarians, entomologists, and representa- 
tives of the United States Bureau of Animal Industry, United States Public Health 
Service, United States Army, New York and Massachusetts Departments of Public 
Health, Harvard Medical School, and Boston Children's Hospital. 



Dr. Eugene L. Hannon of Pittsfield, Veterinary Health Officer of the Division, 
died on October 2, 1938. He was born in Stockbridge in 1886 and was graduated 
from the Ontario Veterinary College, Class of 1906. Dr. Hannon entered the 
employ of the Commonwealth in 1910 and at time of his death had charge of the 
work of the Division in Berkshire County. 

Dr. Mark L. Miner of Greenfield, former Veterinary Health Officer of the Division, 
died on October 9, 1938. Dr. Miner was born in Richmond, Vermont, May 3, 1864, 
and was graduated from the Chicago Veterinary College, Class of 1889. He entered 
the service of the Commonwealth in 1894 an d was retired in May, 1934. 



BOVINE TUBERCULOSIS 

With eradication of bovine tuberculosis its ultimate objective, the major activity 
of the Division this year, as for many years past, centered in the work of elimination 
and control of that disease in domestic animals. 

This work with its many ramifications — tuberculin testing; appraisal and slaughter 
of reactor animals; supervision of disinfection of infected premises, vehicles, etc.; 
maintenance of the quarantine station at Brighton; control of interstate shipment of 
cattle ; and supervision of cattle dealers' purchases and sales — not only occupies the 
major part of the time of the employees of the Division in both field and office, but 
constitutes its principal item of expense. 

The continued finding of reactors to the tuberculin test, although fewer in number 
each year; the frequency with which so-called "breaks" occur in supposedly tuber- 
culosis-free herds ; and the occasional finding of extensively diseased animals at time 
of slaughter are evidence of the need of constant surveillance of all herds through 
periodic tuberculin testing of so-called "clean" herds on a yearly basis, of herds 
known to be infected on a sixty- to ninety-day basis, and of dealer herds on a ninety- 
day basis. 



P. D. 98 



Flood conditions during the year and also the disastrous hurricane of September 21, 
1938, handicapped the work of tuberculin testing in certain sections of the State. 
This is apparent in the table on "Tuberculin Testing by Months," when compared 
with a similar table for the year 1937. 

The total number of herd tests in 1938 is 23,370, as compared with 25,016 in I937 ; 
the total number of animal tests in 1938 is 226,325, as compared with 236,214 in 1937. 

One thousand one hundred twenty-two (1,122) head of cattle, .49% of the total 
226,325 head tested, were declared reactors to the tuberculin test, a percentage lower, 
than previously recorded in this State and for the first time lower than the "less than 
.5%" required under the Federal plan for the eradication of tuberculosis for the 
rating of modified accredited tuberculosis-free areas. 

As is shown by the table "County Infection," the percentage of reactors to the last 
test of the year applied to all cattle in the State again shows a reduction — .068%, as 
compared with .08% in 1937. 

Although the total number of herds recorded in the State (23,195) is less than 
the number of the previous year (23,651), the total number of head again shows an 
increase (212,741, as compared with 210,201 in 1937). 

Tests of 1,062 herds, 3,333 head, of the total of 23,370 herds, 226,325 head, are 
recorded as first tests, no previous tests having been recorded for the owners of these 
herds. 

Two hundred eighty-nine (289) of the 1,122 reactors to the tuberculin test, or 
2575% were reported at time of slaughter as showing no visable lesions of tuber- 
culosis. The carcasses of ten reactors were reported as extensively diseased and 
were condemned as unfit for food purposes. 

The Federal regulation requiring that reactors be slaughtered within fifteen days 
of the date of appraisal if Federal compensation is to be allowed became effective 
July i, 1938, and was adopted and put into force by the Division on that date. 

Tuberculin testing continues to be conducted in cooperation with the United States 
Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Animal Industry. Veterinarians now assigned 
by the Federal Bureau are located in the areas of Leominster, Uxbridge, and New 
Bedford. 

The following tabulation is a record of the work of veterinarians in tuberculin 
testing for the year : 



Veterinarians paid by the State on an annual 
salary basis 

Veterinarians paid by the State on a per diem 
basis 

Veterinarians paid by the owners 

Veterinarians paid by the Federal Government 



Herds 



7,060 



Head 



67,930 



Reactors 



390 



12.494 


121,212 


517 


44 


1,093 


2 


3772 


36,000 


213 



23,370 



226,32; 



1,122 



4 P. D. 98 

Average appraisals, salvage, and indemnity were all slightly lower than for the 
previous year, as is shown by the following tables. 

Tuberculin Testing of Goats 
During the year tuberculin tests were conducted in fourteen herds of- goats. One 
hundred seven head were tested and one animal reacted, but showed no lesions on 
post mortem examination. 

TUBERCULIN TESTS BY MONTHS— 1938 





Clean 


With Reactors 


First 
Tests 


Tested 


Tested 


Reacted 




Herds 


P. B. 


Gd. 


Total 


Herds 


P. B. 


Gd. 


Total 


P. B. 


Gd. 


Total 


1937 

December . . 
1938 

January. . . . 
February. . . 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September. . 
October .... 
November. . 


80 

128 

108 

112 

134 

122 

107 

64 

36 

36 

62 

73 


13 

33 
22 
46 
21 

1 
22 

8 

2 
11 


248 

327 

239 
347 
486 
227 
340 
243 
111 
92 
207 
287 


261 

360 
261 
393 
507 
228 
362 
251 
111 
94 
207 
298 


1 

2 
2 
1 

2 
2 
2 
1 

1 
2 


1 

1 


1 

4 
28 

1 

3 

5 

16 

1 

8 
3 


1 

5 

28 
1 

4 

5 

16 

1 

8 
3 


1 


1 

2 
2 
1 

1 
2 
3 

1 

2 

2 


1 

2 
2 
1 

2 
2 
3 
1 

2 
2 


Total .... 


1,062 


179 


3,154 


3,333 


16 


2 


70 


72 


1 


17 


18 



Retests 




1937 

December . . 
1938 

January. . . . 
February. . . 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September . . 
October .... 
November. . 


1,955 

2,100 
1,649 
2,417 
2,775 
2,371 
1,783 
1,039 
1,112 
1,266 
1,687 
1,775 


2,579 

2,557 

2,488 

2,664 

4,598 

2,189 

887 

386 

476 

489 

1,528 

2,364 


18,981 

19,690 

15,043 

21,003 

25,779 

19,502 

12,196 

6,897 

6,675 

8,927 

13,688 

17,916 


21,560 

22,247 

17,531 

23,667 

30,377 

21,691 

13,083 

7,283 

7,151 

9,416 

15,216 

20,280 


29 

43 
34 
50 
55 
40 
19 
16 
13 
12 
17 
35 


65 

60 

260 

178 

399 

43 

6 

7 

6 

6 

46 

26 


1,605 

1,157 

1,768 

1,288 

1,906 

1,227 

375 

438 

306 

307 

1,009 

930 


1,670 

1,217 

2,028 

1,466 

2,305 

1,270 

381 

445 

312 

313 

1,055 

956 


5 

6 
11 
21 

17 
4 

2 
3 
5 
1 
4 


178 

155 
83 
109 
129 
89 
46 
58 
41 
28 
54 
55 


183 

161 
94 
130 
146 
93 
46 
60 
44 
33 
55 
59 


Total 


21,929 


23,205 


186,297 


209,502 


363 


1,102 


12,316 


13,418 


79 


1,025 


1,104 



Total 



1937 

December . 
1938 

January. . . 
February. . 
March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August. . . . 
September , 
October . . . 
November . 

Total . . 



Herds 



2,065 

2,273 
1,793 
2,580 
2,964 
2,535 
1,911 
1,121 
1,162 
1,314 
1,767 
1,885 



23,370 



Tests 



P. B. 



2,657 

2,651 

2,770 

2,888 

5,018 

2,234 

915 

401 

482 

497 

1,574 

2,401 



24,488 



Gd. 



20,835 

21,178 

17,078 

22,639 

28,171 

20,959 

12,916 

7,594 

7,093 

9,326 

14,912 

19,136 



201,837 



Total 



23,492 

23,829 

19,848 

25,527 

33,189 

23,193 

13,831 

7,995 

7,575 

9,823 

16,486 

21,537 



226,325 



P. B. 



6 
11 

21 

17 

5 

2 
3 
5 
1 

4 



Reactors 



80 



Gd. 



179 

157 
85 
110 
129 
90 
48 
61 
42 
28 
56 
57 



1,042 



Total 



184 

163 
96 
131 
146 
95 
48 
63 
45 
33 
57 
61 



1,122 



P. D. 98 



TUBERCULIN TESTS BY COUNTIES I938 





Clean 


With Reactors 


FIR8T 
Tests 


Tested 


Tested 


Reacted 




Herds 


P. B. 


Gd. 


Total 


Herds 


P. B. 


Gd. 


Total 


P.B. 


Gd. 


Total 


Barnstable. . 
Berkshire . . . 
Bristol 

Franklin . . . 
Hampden . . 
Hampshire . 
Middlesex . . 
Nantucket . 
Norfolk .... 
Plymouth . . 
Suffolk 
Worcester . . 


29 
97 

110 
10 
66 
65 

108 
56 

130 

4 

67 

89 

3 

228 


5 
25 
12 

29 

6 

5 

10 

10 
23 

54 


47 
298 
385 

26 
195 
131 
350 
231 
546 

10 

137 

164 

3 

631 


52 
323 
397 

26 
224 
131 
356 
236 
556 

10 

147 

187 

3 

685 


1 
1 

1 
6 

1 

6 


1 
1 


2 
8 

1 

12 
1 

46 


3 
8 

2 

12 

1 

46 


1 


2 

1 

6 
1 

7 


1 
2 

1 
6 
1 

7 


Total 


1,062 


179 


3,154 


3,333 


16 


2 


70 


72 


1 


17 


18 



Retests 




Barnstable . 
Berkshire. . . 
Bristol 

Essex 

Franklin . . . 
Hampden . . 
Hampshire . 
Middlesex . . 
Nantucket . 
Norfolk 
Plymouth . . 
Suffolk 
Worcester . . 


540 
2,011 
2,486 
119 
1,408 
1,845 
1,916 
2,037 
2,375 

37 
1,025 
1,527 

21 
4,582 


125 
3,197 
2,310 

21 
1,791 
1,932 
1,532 
2,901 
2,405 

14 
1,091 
1,060 

77 
4,749 


1,806 
22,382 
19,241 

672 
11,362 
17,604 
14,372 
16,859 
20,267 

390 

7,944 

10,128 

110 
43,160 


1,931 
25,579 
21,551 

693 
13,153 
19,536 
15,904 
19,760 
22,672 

404 

9,035 

11,188 

187 
47,909 


1 
26 
54 

32 
5 
19 
25 
70 

32 

14 

3 

82 


19 
366 

3 

213 

98 

221 

12 
28 

142 


27 

927 

1,035 

3,251 
233 
471 
644 

2,364 

641 

494 

31 

2,198 


27 

946 

1,401 

3,254 
233 

684 

742 

2,585 

653 

522 

31 

2,340 


1 
9 

2 

10 

8 

29 

1 

1 

18 


1 

83 

131 

219 

6 

41 

68 

203 

77 

25 

3 

168 


1 

84 

140 

221 

6 

51 

76 

232 

78 

26 

3 

186 


Total 


21,929 


23,205 


186,297 


209,502 


363 


1,102 


12,316 


13,418 


79 


1,025 


1,104 







Tests 






Reactors 




Total 


Herds 


P.B. 


Gd. 


Total 


P.B. 


Gd. 


Total 


Berkshire 

Bristol 


570 
2,135 
2,651 
129 
1,506 
1,915 
2,044 
2,118 
2,581 

41 
1,125 
1,630 

27 
4,898 


130 
3,242 
2,688 

21 
1,823 
1,932 
1,752 
3,004 
2,636 

14 
1,113 
1,111 

77 
4,945 


1,880 

23,609 

20,669 

698 

14,808 

17,968 

15,194 

17,734 

23,189 

400 

8,723 

10,786 

144 

46,035 


2,010 
26,851 
23,357 

719 
16,631 
19,900 
16,946 
20,738 
25,825 

414 

9,836 

11,897 

221 
50,980 


2 
9 

2 

10 

8 

29 

1 
1 

18 


1 

83 

133 

219 

6 

42 

68 

209 

78 

25 

3 

175 


1 

85 

142 


Dukes 




Essex 

Franklin 


221 
6 




52 


Hampshire 

Middlesex 


76 
238 


Nantucket 




Norfolk 


79 


Plymouth 


26 


Suffolk 


3 


Worcester 


193 






Total 


23,370 


24,488 


201,837 


226,325 


80 


1,042 


1,122 







P. D. 98 



COUNTY INFECTION 
STATUS OF HERDS ON NOVEMBER 30, 1938, 1937, 1936 



1938 


Tests 


Reactors 




Herds 


Head 


Herds 


Head 


Reactors 


Barnstable 


557 
2,107 
2,536 
138 
1,567 
2,016 
1,935 
2,082 
2,574 

41 
1,067 
1,612 

22 
4,941 


1,939 
25,935 
20,977 

751 
13,964 
20,609 
15,070 
20,099 
23,468 

414 

8,953 

10,988 

175 
49,399 


7 
7 

10 

2 

7 
12 

4 
4 

18 


200 
91 

673 

19 
217 
381 

41 
79 

480 




Berkshire 


21 


Bristol 


12 


Dukes 




Essex 


25 


Franklin 




Hampden 





Hampshire 


15 


Middlesex 


24 


Nantucket 




Norfolk 


6 


Plymouth 


4 


Suffolk 




Worcester 


37 






Total 


23,195 


212,741 


71 


2,181 


146 







1937 


Tests 


Reactors 




Herds 


Head 


Herds 


Head 


Reactors 


Barnstable 


572 
2,153 
2,590 
143 
1,614 
2,050 
1,958 
2,152 
2,645 

45 
1,079 
1,620 

22 
5,008 


1,909 
26,194 
20,454 

703 
13,924 
20,590 
14,866 
19,633 
23,054 

452 

8,842 

10,453 

176 
48,951 


3 

9 

11 

4 
4 

8 

1 
4 

25 


64 
163 

843 

102 

149 
151 

141 

88 

549 




Berkshire 


9 


Bristol 

Dukes 


12 


Essex 

Franklin 


28 


Hampden 


14 


Hampshire 


7 


Middlesex 


39 


Nantucket 




Norfolk 


4 


Plymouth 


23 


Suffolk 




Worcester 


41 






Total 


23,651 


210,201 


69 


2,255 


177 









Te 


STS 


Reactors 




1936 


Herds 


Head 


Herds 


Head 


Reactors 


Barnstable 


617 
2,243 
2,675 
147 
1,643 
2,136 
1,998 
2,221 
2,656 

47 
1,105 
1,673 

20 
5,117 


1,999 
26,461 
19,817 

707 
13,869 
20,573 
14,866 
19,585 
22,509 

481 
. 8,951 
10,355 

189 
49,582 


22 
13 
1 
9 
2 
4 
6 
10 

1 
3 

34 


430 
246 
2 
722 
63 
140 
220 
299 

33 
143 

786 




Berkshire 


39 


Bristol 


15 


Dukes 


1 


Essex 


29 


Franklin 


25 


Hampden 


6 


Hampshire 


9 


Middlesex 


17 


Nantucket 




Norfolk 


20 


Plymouth 


5 


Suffolk 




Worcester 


94 






Total 


24,298 


209,944 


105 


3,084 


260 







P. D. 98 









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P. D. 98 9 

INERSTATE MOVEMENT OF CATTLE 

The movement or transportation of cattle into the Commonwealth of Massachusetts 
was affected to a marked extent by Chapter 168, Acts of 1938, passed by the General 
Court and approved April 5, 1938, and effective on July 4, 1938. This law, referred 
to as "An Act relative to the control of the importation of animals affected with 
Bang's Abortion Disease," reads as follows : 

Chapter one hundred and twenty-nine of the General Laws is hereby amended by 
striking out section twenty-six A, as appearing in the Tercentenary Edition, and 
inserting in place thereof the following: — Section 26A. Whoever ships, drives or 
transports into the commonwealth cattle to be used for dairy purposes, unless they 
have been inspected and passed as healthy by a veterinary inspector of the United 
States Bureau of Animal Industry or a veterinarian of the state of origin authorized 
by the state and approved by said bureau and are accompanied by a certificate of 
health approved by the proper livestock officials of the state of origin stating that 
each such animal six months of age or over was negative to an agglutination blood 
test for Bang's abortion disease applied within thirty days prior to entry, shall be 
punished by a fine of not more than two hundred dollars. 

Under the provisions of this law it is required that in addition to the permit, made 
necessary by Division Order No. 42, each shipment of dairy cattle into Massachusetts 
must be accompanied by a certificate of health approved by the proper livestock offi- 
cial of the state of origin. 

For the proper enforcement of the law, it was necessary to revoke Division Order 
No. 44 and to invoke new regulations, as follows : 

To Transportation Companies, Inspectors of Animals, and All Persons Whom It 
May Concern : 

Division Order No. 44 is hereby revoked and the following Order to be known 
as Order No. 45 submitted therefor : 

Whereas it is deemed necessary, for the protection of the livestock interests of the 
Commonwealth, to restrict shipments into this Commonwealth of cattle assumed to 
be affected with Bang's abortion disease (Chapter 168, Acts of 1938) 

Now therefore, acting under and by virtue of the authority vested in me by the 
provisions of Chapter 129 of the General Laws (Tercentenary Edition) and all Acts 
and Amendments thereof and in addition thereto, and all other authority me hereto 
enabling, I do hereby make the following order and regulation: — 

Section 1. All bovine animals, six months of age or over, shipped, driven, or in 
any way transported into the Commonwealth of Massachusetts from any point out- 
side thereof to be used for dairy purposes unless they have been inspected and passed 
as healthy by a veterinary inspector of the United States Bureau of Animal Industry 
or a veterinarian of the state of origin authorized by the state and approved by said 
Bureau and are accompanied by a certificate of health approved by the proper live- 
stock officials of the state of origin stating that each animal six months of age or 
over was negative to an agglutination blood test for Bang's abortion disease applied 
within thirty days prior to entry, are hereby declared to be in quarantine and, pending 
a decision by the Director of Livestock Disease Control as to their disposal or release 
as provided in Section 2 of this Order, shall be segregated at the risk and expense 
of the owner or the person, firm or corporation in whose charge such animals are 
held. 

Section 2. All bovine animals quarantined under the provisions of Section 1 of 
this Order may be released by order of the Director, providing the owner or his 
authorized representative shall agree: 

A. To return said animals immediately to the state in which shipment origin- 
ated; or 



10 



P. D. 98 



B. To arrange for the immediate slaughter of said animals and to furnish the 
Director, as evidence of killing, a statement signed by the inspector of slaughter- 
ing under whose inspection slaughter took place giving information as to the 
identification of each animal and the date and place of slaughter; or 

C. To submit to the laboratory of the Division of Livestock Disease Control a 
sample of blood from each of said animals, which blood must be drawn by a 
registered veterinarian employed by and at the expense of the owner, or the 
person, firm, or corporation in whose charge such animals are held, said ani- 
mals to be released by the Director if the report of the laboratory test is nega- 
tive, or to be disposed of by the owner or his authorized representative in 
accordance with option A or B of this Section if the test is reported by the 
laboratory otherwise than negative. 

This order shall become effective July 4, 1938, and shall be published by the 
Inspector of Animals in each city and town in the Commonwealth by filing a copy 
hereof with the City Clerk or the Town Clerk as the case may be and by posting 
a copy hereof in a conspicuous public place within the city or town for which he is the 
Inspector of Animals. 

CHARLES F. RIORDAN, 

Director of Livestock Disease Control. 
Approved : 

WILLIAM CASEY, Commissioner of Agriculture. 

Approved in Council June 13, 1938: 

WILLIAM L. REED, Executive Secretary. 

Under the law (Chapter 168, Acts of 1938), as interpreted by the office of the 
Attorney General, cattle entering Massachusetts for pasture purposes and cattle 
returning from out-of-state pasturage must be accompanied by a certificate of blood 
test made within thirty days prior to entry, as specified in the law. Cattle entering 
the State for exhibition purposes are exempt, however, from that requirement. It was 
also ruled by the Attorney General that the clause "negative to an agglutination blood 
test" be interpreted to imply that the test must have resulted negatively to all dilu- 
tions or titres normally recorded by the official laboratory of the state from which 
the consignment originated. 

The effect of the change in interstate shipment requirements is reflected in the 
tabulation of receipts of dairy cattle at the quarantine station at Brighton and at 
points other than Brighton. 

Quarantine Station at Brighton 
The receipts at the dairy section of the quarantine station, indicating the origin 
and disposition of cattle received, are as follows : 





Released 

on 
Papers 


Held for 
T.B. Test 
Released 


Held for Blood Test 






Released 


Ret'd to 
State of 
Origin 


Killed 


Total 


Origin: 

Interstate : 

Canada 

Connecticut 

Maine 

New Hampshire 

New York 

Rhode Island 


40 

3 

4,137 

1,293 

78 

10 

1,573 


1 
9 

12 


4 


5 


2 


40 

3 

4,138 

1,302 

78 

10 

1,596 


Vermont 




7,134 
2,303 


22 
4 


4 


5 


2 


7,167 
2,307 


Held over, 1937, Vermont. . . . 


9,437 


26 
2 


4 


5 


2 


9,474 
2 


Total 


9,437 


28 


4 


5 


2 


9,476 



P. D. 98 



11 



Disposition 



Massachusetts 
Rhode Island 
Vermont 



Returned to state of origin, or killed 



Interstate 
5,990 
1,165 

7 

7,162 
7 



7,169 



State 

2,178 

129 

2,307 

2,307 



Total 
8,168 
1,294 

7 

9,469 

7 

9,476 



The importance of preventing contact at the sales barn between blood-tested cattle 
and cattle which have not been subjected to the blood test was recognized and a 
section of the barn was set aside as an area for handling cattle which are certified 
as negative to the blood test. Cattle, state or interstate, eligible for housing in that 
portion of the sales barn must be accompanied by proper health certificates of blood 
test. 

Arrivals from other states on and after July 4 totalled 2,873 head. Two thousand 
eight hundred sixty-two (2,862) head which were accompanied by satisfactory health 
certificates were released. Eleven (11) head — all from Vermont — were held. Of 
these, five were returned to Vermont without test, four were tested and found nega- 
tive to the agglutination test and were released, and one was reported doubtful to 
the agglutination test and was slaughtered, and one was slaughtered at the request 
of the owner without test. 

As a result of rumors regarding irregularities in connection with blood tests of 
cattle which arrive at the quarantine station, blood tests, without advance notice 
to owners or shippers, were conducted as follows : 

Week of September 5 : 

Cattle Received Bloods Drawn 

Maine 

New Hampshire 

Vermont 

Total 

Week of November 22: 

Connecticut 

Maine 

New Hampshire 

Vermont 

Total 



73 


33 


36 


14 


14 


7 


123 


54 


3 


3 


87 


33 


44 


19 


36 


15 



170 



70 



With few exceptions the results proved satisfactory and a report of the findings 
was sent to the livestock officials of the states from which the cattle were received. 

There were also received for slaughter at the Brighton station the following dis- 
eased cattle : 





Mass. 


N 


H. 


Vt. 


Total 


Tuberculin test reactors 


476 




— 


— 


476 


Tuberculosis suspects 


6 




— 


— 


6 


Bang's disease reactors 


10 




6 


— 


16 


Bang's disease suspects 


— 




2 


2 


4 


Bang's disease suspects (on permit-to-kill 












basis) 


— 




— 


2 


2 




4 




— 


1 


5 




2 




— 


2 


2 


Actinomycosis 


1 




— 


— 


1 



499 



512 



These cattle were checked, tagged, and released to slaughtering establishments for 
immediate slaughter. 



12 P. D. 98 

One hundred forty-four (144) head of Canadian dairy cattle were received at the 
stock yard station by rail ; 40 were released at the sales barn ; 104 accompanied by 
official permits, were transferred to trucks and allowed to proceed to the destinations 
named in the permits. 

Four hundred forty-six (446) trucks and 3 railroad cars were cleaned, washed, and 
disinfected at Brighton under the direct supervision of an employee of the Division. 
The sales barn is cleaned, washed, and disinfected at regular intervals. 

Two thousand three hundred twenty (2,320) head of cattle were treated in preven- 
tion of hemorrhagic septicemia, or shipping fever. This service is given only upon 
request of the owners of cattle. 

Arrivals at Points Other Than Brighton 
Three thousand seven hundred twenty-nine (3,729) permits, as required by Division 
Order No. 43, were issued in 1938, as compared with 4,198 in 1937. Of this number, 
223 permits covered shipments of cattle for exhibition purposes. There were re- 
ceived on these permits 17,346 dairy cattle, 886 exhibition cattle, and 4,979 cattle con- 
signed for immediate slaughter. The dairy cattle originated at the following points : 

Canada 2,203 New Jersey ....... 22 

Connecticut 1,429 New York 1,280 

Georgia 1 Ohio 960 

Illinois 2 Oregon . 1 

Indiana 48 Pennsylvania 318 

Maine 649 Rhode Island 696 

Maryland 2 Vermont 6,429 

Michigan 254 West Virginia 1 

Minnesota 313 Wisconsin 556 

Missouri 28 Wyoming 1 

New Hampshire .... 2,053 

Total 17,346 

Of the total number received, 16,884 were released on certificates of health issued by 
the state or country of origin and 462 were held and retested. Four hundred fifty- 
eight (458) of those held and retested were released, and 4 which reacted were con- 
demned and slaughtered. Two of the reactors showed no visible lesions of tuber- 
culosis and one proved to be a generalized case. 

Six thousand seven hundred five (6,705) of the 17,346 head received arrived 
after July 4. One hundred three (103) were unaccompanied by acceptable or properly 
approved certificates of health. Concerning these 103 cattle, blood samples were 
drawn by veterinarians at the expense of the owner or shipper and were submitted 
for laboratory examination. The result was that 95 (negative) were released, 7 (5 
positive and 2 doubtful) were slaughtered, and 1 was returned to the state of origin. 
Origin of cattle arriving at points outside of Brighton on and after July 4: 

Canada 1,462 New Jersey 16 

Connecticut 330 New York 362 

Maine 238 Ohio 280 

Indiana ....... 23 Pennsylvania 7 2 

Maryland 1 Rhode Island 219 

Michigan 134 Vermont 2,697 

Minnesota 77 Wisconsin 249 

New Hampshire .... 545 

Total 6,705 

Recapitulation 
The total number of cattle received interstate was 24,513 (7,167 at Brighton and 
17,346 at other points), as compared with 29,136 in 1937 (9,016 at Brighton and 
20,120 at other points). 



P. D. 98 



13 



The following table is an analysis of the sections from which cattle were received 
interstate : 

Canada 2,243 



New England sta 
New York . 
Southern states 
Western states 
Total 



tes 










• 







18,305 
1,458 

344 
2,163 

24,513 



Addendum 

Other legislation, Chapter 386, Acts of 1938, effective September 1 (copy of which 
follows), although primarily a police bill intended for the purpose of preventing 
''cattle rustling" or stealing, also should be of benefit in preventing the "bootlegging" 
of cattle interstate. 

Chapter one hundred and twenty-nine of the General Laws is hereby amended by 
inserting after section thirty-six B, inserted by chapter three hundred and fourteen 
of the acts of the current year, the following new section: — Section 36C. No person, 
except the owner of the cattle being transported or a person acting under written 
authority of such owner, shall transport neat cattle on any public highway unless 
he then has in his possession a bill of sale or a memorandum signed by the owner of 
such cattle and containing the owner's address, the number, breed and ear tag number 
of the cattle and the name of the place or places to which the cattle are to be trans- 
ported. Any person, except as aforesaid, transporting such cattle shall on demand 
exhibit such bill of sale or memorandum to any officer qualified to serve criminal 
process. Whoever violates any provision of this section shall be punished by imprison- 
ment in the state prison for not more than five years, or in a jail or house of correc- 
tion for not less than thirty days nor more than two and one half years, or by a fine 
of not more than two hundred dollars. 

Cattle Exports 
One thousand three hundred one (1,301) head of cattle, identified and released at 
the dairy section of the quarantine station at Brighton, were transported direct to 
other states. In addition, interstate shipping certificates were issued by the Division 
covering 4,776 head of Massachusetts cattle for consignment to other states and 
countries. The following tabulation is a record of cattle exports : 
From the quarantine station at Brighton : 
Destination Head 
Rhode Island 1,294 Vermont 7 



From Massachusetts herds 

Destination 

Alabama 

California 

Colorado 

Connecticut 

Florida . 

Georgia . 

Illinois 

Indiana . 

Iowa 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri . 

New Hampshire 



Head Destination 



1 

15 

1 

1,830 

1 

1 

14 

4 

2 

2 

127 

4 
6 
2 

1 

3 
362 



New Jersey . 
New York . 
Ohio . . 
Oregon . 
Pennsylvania 
Rhode Island 
Texas 
Vermont 
Virginia . 
Washington . 
West Virginia 
Wisconsin 



Australia 
Canada . 
Jamaica . 
Puerto Rico 

Total . 



1,301 

Head 

20 

285 

24 

1 

13 
1,624 

386 

5 

1 

22 

9 

1 
6 
1 
1 

4,776 



14 P. D. 98 

LICENSED CATTLE DEALERS 

The law, (Chapter 426, Acts of 1935), by which it is required that persons engaged 
in the business of dealing in cattle for dairy purposes must obtain annually a license 
to engage in such business, continues to be of great value, not only to the dairy 
farmer by assuring him protection regarding the health status of cattle which he may 
purchase, but to the Division itself by keeping it informed concerning the activities 
of cattle dealers. As a rule dealers express the opinion that the law is of benefit 
to them also because it has a tendency to discourage the activities of unscrupulous 
traders. 

A thorough check by the Division of the weekly reports which dealers are required 
to make results frequently in preventing the addition of animals of questionable status 
to disease-free herds. 

Two hundred eighty-four (284) licenses were issued in 1938. Two licenses were 
temporarily suspended and four were revoked for non-compliance with the require- 
ments of the Division in connection with dealers' licenses. Four of these licenses 
were renewed upon payment of the five-dollar renewal fee required by law. 

Cattle dealers reported the sale of 31,362 cattle during the year, of which 29,296, 
intended for dairy purposes, were checked for purpose of identification as proper 
additions to tuberculosis-free supervised herds. Two thousand sixty-six (2,066) were 
sold by dealers for slaughter. 

A conviction against one dealer in the Town of Greenfield for dealing in cattle 
without a license was obtained in the district court in Greenfield and a suspended 
fine of $25. imposed. A verdict which carried a fine of $50. was obtained in the 
superior court at Lawrence against the Newburyport dealer referred to in the report 
of this Division for the year 1937. 

BANG'S ABORTION DISEASE 

Although recognized as a contagious disease of serious economic importance to 
the dairy industry and to some extent a public health problem, Bang's abortion dis- 
ease differs radically from other contagious diseases of animals. It is rarely diag- 
nosed from physical symptoms alone or as a result of a systemic reaction to any 
type of test applied to the animal itself — diagnosis depending wholly on results ob- 
tained by laboratory methods. 

There still continues to be a decided difference of opinion on the part of owners 
of cattle, veterinarians, and investigators as to the better method of procedure to 
pursue in the control of Bang's abortion disease — whether through attempted eradica- 
tion by blood-test-and-slaughter, or by an endeavor to establish acquired protection 
with possible immunity by vaccination. 

Interest in the control or eradication of any of the many contagious diseases of 
domestic animals through the blood-test-and-slaughter method depends largely upon 
whether compensation for animals destroyed is provided. This situation has always 
existed regardless of the nature of the disease and whether eradication or control 
is desirable for economic or public health reasons. The extermination of contagious 
pleuro-pneumonia of cattle in the epidemic of i86o-'6i (to which epidemic this 
branch of the State service owes its origin) was accomplished only as a result of 
slaughter, with compensation for all affected and contact cattle destroyed. The same 
is true regarding glanders in horses and foot-and-mouth disease in cattle, sheep, and 
swine. Never would bovine tuberculosis have been brought to its present low point 
without the aid of compensation. This same situation would undoubtedly exist in 
regard to Bang's abortion disease if eradication were to be attempted by slaughter. 

Exponents of the vaccination method of approaching the problem believe that de- 
struction of reactors to the agglutination blood test without due consideration being 
given to breeding, production record, etc., is economically unsound and claim that 
control or even eradication of the disease through the proper use of vaccine is a 
more reasonable possibility. 

As in previous years, this Division, except for supplying the vials to use in ob- 
taining blood samples and offering laboratory service for examination of these sam- 



P. D. 98 15 

pies, has not entered into any active campaign in connection with either eradication 
or control of Bang's abortion disease. The vials and laboratory service are both 
provided without charge. 

The so-called Massachusetts plan for the accreditation of herds as free from Bang's 
abortion disease, while it has an appeal for those interested in the sale of purebred 
cattle, has little as yet to offer the majority of cattle owners. However, during the 
year 13 herds containing 567 head of cattle have been awarded Bang's abortion dis- 
ease-free accredited herd certificates. Twenty-nine (29) of the herds accredited in 
1937 were re-accredited, making a total of 42 herds containing 1,849 head of cattle 
accredited at this time. During the year 19,629 samples of blood from 545 herds 
were received for examination. Of this number 16,715 were negative to the agglutina- 
tion blood test and 854 were positive. 

Blood testing by the United States Bureau of Animal Industry under the Federal 
elimination plan has continued as in the past few years. Four thousand six hundred 
seventy-three (4,673) blood samples from 59 herds were drawn during the year by 
veterinarians in the employ of the Federal government. One hundred fifty-seven 
(157) bloods indicated positive reactions and the animals from which the bloods were 
drawn were tagged, branded, and disposed of as required by Federal regulations. 

Calfhood Vaccination 

Experiments under way in Massachusetts conducted by the Federal Bureau in 
calfhood vaccination appear from all reports to be quite promising, but until a suffi- 
cient number of such vaccinated calves have passed through several pregnancies and 
have continued to remain negative to blood tests, no definite conclusion can very 
well be reached. 

The vaccine employed — referred to as Strain 19 — is manufactured under strict 
governmental supervision and consists of a culture of Brucella abortus bacilli, which 
is non-pathogenic to cattle. If adult animals, vaccinated as calves, continue apparently 
immune, it would appear that the disease practically could be eradicated after a few 
generations of cattle have been so treated. Apparently with this thought in mind, 
advocates of calfhood vaccination succeeded in having legislation passed this year 
in Massachusetts, Chapter 314, Acts of 1938, which reads as follows : 

Chapter one hundred and twenty-nine of the General Laws is hereby amended by 
adding after section thirty-six A, inserted by chapter four hundred and twenty-six 
of the acts of nineteen hundred and thirty-five, the following new section: — Section 
36B. The director or his agent, with the approval of the owner of the cattle herein- 
after referred to, may vaccinate cattle not less than four nor more than eight months 
of age, which in the judgment of the director or such agent may cause the spread of 
Bang's disease ; provided, that such vaccination is supervised under rules and regula- 
tions of the department of agriculture, authority to make the same being hereby 
granted. For each animal so vaccinated the director shall collect a fee of fifty cents. 

Under this law the following rules and regualtions were promulgated : 

Rules and Regulations 

APPLYING TO THE VACCINATION OF CALVES BETWEEN THE AGES 
OF FOUR AND EIGHT MONTHS UNDER THE PROVISIONS OF 
CHAPTER 314, ACTS OF 1938 

1. Owners of cattle desiring assistance from the Commonwealth of Massachusetts 
in the prevention of Bang's abortion disease may apply to the Director of Live- 
stock Disease Control for the vaccination of any or all calves in their possession 
not less than four nor more than eight months of age. The application, signed 
by the owner or his authorized representative, shall be made on forms prescribed 
by said Director and be accompanied by the fee prescribed by law. 

2. The application shall give complete information as to the number of calves to be 
vaccinated, the date of birth of each such calf, its breed and sex, and the eartag 
or registration number of its dam. 



16 P. D. 98 

3. The applicant shall agree to notify the Director in writing of such disposition as 
may be made of each and every calf after vaccination; the date when such calf, if 
a heifer, is bred; the date of calving after breeding; and, if requested, shall sub- 
mit for laboratory examination a blood sample drawn prior to .breeding. 

4. Said applicant shall agree to waive all liability on the part of the Commonwealth 
of Massachusetts or its agents in the application of the treatment or any un- 
favorable results that may occur through the use of the vaccine. 

5. The applicant or his representative shall agree to comply with these rules and 
regulations and such additional rules and regulations as the Director of Livestock 
Disease Control may prescribe from time to time. 

CHARLES F. RIORDAN, 

Director of Livestock Disease Control. 
Approved : 

WILLIAM CASEY, 
Commissioner of Agriculture 

Approved in Council July 7, 1938. Approved as to form : 

WILLIAM L. REED, RAYMOND E. SULLIVAN 

Executive Secretary. Assistant Attorney General. 

Owing to the limited age period in which vaccination can be applied under the 
provisions of this law and, possibly, to the requirement of a fee of fifty cents on each 
animal vaccinated, the demand for this service has been limited. Five requests for 
vaccination were received and seventeen calves were vaccinated. 

HOG CHOLERA 

Weather conditions during the major part of the year were unusually favorable 
to the successful raising of swine, resulting in comparatively few reports of serious 
outbreaks of any of the various diseases to which swine are subject. 

During the year 81,329 treatments for and in prevention of hog cholera were ap- 
plied by veterinarians in the employ of the Division on 932 premises. In addition, 
39,515 treatments were applied on 1,148 premises by veterinarians in private practice. 

In addition to the above, 25,481 treatments for infection in swine other than cholera 
were applied by State-employed veterinarians and 8,254 treatments by veterinarians 
in private practice. 

RABIES 

In the report of the Division for the year 1937, attention was called to the dis- 
turbing fact that rabies in animals was apparently increasing. The record for that 
year showed a decided upward trend in the number of cases reported. It is there- 
fore gratifying to report that for the year 1938 the records of the Division show a 
substantial reduction in the number of rabies cases reported (60 cases, as compared 
with 218 in the year 1937). Even more gratifying is the fact that this number (60 
cases) is the lowest number reported in this State any year since 191 7. 

The factor, or factors, responsible for so great a reduction in the total number of 
such cases are difficult to determine. Preventive or protective vaccination by veter- 
inarians in private practice and at clinics sponsored by local boards of health can 
be accorded some credit without question, although records show that there were 
fewer clinics held in 1938 (35 in number) and fewer dogs (11,361) vaccinated at 
such clinics than in 1937, in which year 45 clinics were held and 13,498 dogs were 
treated. It is quite apparent also that clinics have not always met with popular 
approval in communities where held. This fact has been indicated by the low per- 
centage of dogs, licensed or unlicensed, which have been presented for treatment. 
Publicity through radio broadcasts and news releases doubtless has been effective 
to some extent in making the public rabies-conscious, and has resulted in a more 
careful supervision of dogs by their owners and in a more prompt reporting of ani- 
mals suspected as possibly affected with rabies. 



P. D. 98 



17 



Whatever the explanation may be, it is emperative that there be no relaxation of 
effort in the enforcement of existing dog laws, in the prompt quarantining and re- 
porting of suspected animals, and, possibly, in the continuation of vaccination clinics. 

An example of the manner in which rabies can be spread is the case which oc- 
curred during the year in which a dog, owned in Andover, left home and made its 
way to Portsmouth, New Hampshire, where it was harboured a few hours. It dis- 
appeared from Portsmouth and shortly afterward was found in Dover, New Hamp- 
shire. The owner, identified by the name on the dog's collar, was notified and the 
dog was returned to Andover, but escaped from home and was again found in the 
neighborhood. A veterinarian who was then called in for advice made a diagnosis 
of rabies. The dog is known to have bitten the owner's son in Andover, and, during 
the period of its travels, a veterinarian and a dog in Dover, New Hampshire. 

Rabies was reported this year in 23 of the 76 cities and towns recorded in 1937, 
in addition to which cases were reported in 14 additional cities and towns, making 
a total of 37 cities and towns in which the disease was known to exist in 1938. 



1938 



Rabies by Towns — Dogs 



Andover 4 

Attleboro 1 

Billerica .._ 1 

Boston _ 1 

B oxford „ 1 

Braintree 1 

Brockton 1 

Canton „ 1 

Chelsea 1 

Danvers - 2 

Dunstable 1 

Erving _ 1 



East Bridgewater 1 

Fitchburg 1 

Grafton — 1 

Haverhill 1 

Ipswich 1 

Lawrence 1 

Lowell 4 

Maiden 1 

Methuen _ „ 2 

Milton „ 1 

Newbury 1 

Newton „ 1 



Norwood 1 

Peabody „ _ 2 

Reading 2 

Rowley _ „ 2 

Saugus _ 3 

Stoughton 1 

Sutton 2 

Uxbridge 1 

Westboro 6 

Wilmington 2 

Worcester „ 3 

Wrentham 1 



J 938 — Rabies by Towns — Miscellaneous 



Cambridge 
Dunstable 



Cat 
1 



Coi 



1938 — Rabies by Counties 

Towns 

Bristol 1 

Essex _ 10 

Franklin „ 1 

Middlesex _ 9 

Norfolk „...._ „ _ „ 6 

Plymouth _ 2 

Suffolk — „ 2 

Worcester _ „ 6 

Total - ~S7 



Cases 

1 

19 
1 

15 
6 
2 
2 

60 



i8 



P. D. 98 



RABIES 



Showing 
Symptoms 




Contact 






Bite Cases 













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'•43 


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V 

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5 



Forward, Year 1937 

December, 1937 

January, 1938 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

Forward 

Total 

The above record refers to 
the following animals: 

Cats 

Cattle 

Chimpanzees 

Dogs 

Goat 

Mice 

Rabbit 

Sheep 

Squirrels 









23 








186 








6 


1 




2 








414 




17 




9 


2 




36 


8 


1 




434 




14 




9 


7 




5 








424 




18 




7 






7 








584 


6 


16 




5 


2 


1 


27 








843 


3 


9 




7 


3 




3 








923 


5 


19 




4 


2 


2 


8 








988 


7 


32 




5 


1 


2 


2 








971 


7 


14 




1 


2 


5 


9 








836 


7 


17 




2 






2 








659 


1 


18 




2 


3 




14 








582 


1 


15 




2 


3 


2 








14 


401 


1 


23 


172 


59 


26 


12 


138 


8 


1 


14 


8,245 


38 


212 


172 




1 


1 


1 
4 




1 




40 
3 


1 


20 
1 




59 


23 
1 

1 


11 


133 


8 




14 


8,201 
1 


37 


186 

1 
1 

3 


172 



209 
440 
504 
463 
620 
890 
960 
1,043 
1,002 
877 
682 
617 
432 
186 

8,925 



64 
5 
4 
8,844 
1 
2 
1 
1 
3 



Total positive cases, 60 

The heads of 304 animals were received for laboratory examination. Of this num- 
ber 52 were reported by the laboratory as positive for rabies, 240 as negative, and 
12 as questionable. 

One hundred forty-three (143) persons were reported as having been bitten by 
rabid animals or exposed to them. 

The number of animal-bite cases reported during the year is 10,640, as compared 
with 8,355 reported in 1937. 

The number of stray or "owner unknown" dogs reported as placed under restraint 
or quarantined on premises other than those of the owner has increased steadily, 
owing to greater activity on the part of public health officials in requiring a report 
of all injuries inflicted by animals through biting or scratching. This increase in 
number resulted in more liability year by year for the expense of quarantine. Under 
the law (Section 29 of Chapter 129 of the General Laws, as appearing in the Ter- 
centenary Edition), the Division of Livestock Disease Control was liable for this 
expense. As this Division believed that such expense rightfully should be paid from 
the dog tax fund, a bill was prepared and presented to the legislature in 1938, and 
accordingly the law was amended by Chapter 308, Acts of 1938, by which the county 
in which the biting or scratching takes place is now responsible for such expense. 

Section twenty-nine of chapter one hundred and twenty-nine of the General Laws, 
as appearing in the Tercentenary Edition, is hereby amended by adding at the end the 
following : — , except that, in the case of any animal quarantined for biting or scratch- 
ing a person, the expense of such quarantine shall be paid by the county in which the 
injury was inflicted, — so as to read as follows: — Section 29. If animals have been 
quarantined, collected or isolated upon the premises of the owner or of the person 
in possession of them at the time such quarantine is imposed, the expense thereof 
shall be paid by such owner or person; but if specific animals have been quarantined 
or isolated under section eight or twenty-one for more than ten days upon such prem- 



P. D. 98 19 

ises, as suspected of being affected with a contagious disease, and the owner is for- 
bidden to sell any of the product thereof for food, or if animals have been quaran- 
tined, collected or isolated on any premises other than those of such owner or person 
in possession thereof, the expense of such quarantine shall be paid by the common- 
wealth, except that, in the case of any animal quarantined for biting or scratching 
a person, the expense of such quarantine shall be paid by the county in which the 
injury was inflicted. 

EQUINE ENCEPHALOMYELITIS 

Encephalomyelitis in horses in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts was first 
reported to this Division on August 15. Investigation, however, revealed that previ- 
ous to that date the disease had been diagnosed as early as the month of June in 
one case, followed by a few scattered cases in the month of July. It was found, also, 
that at the time of the report of August 15 a number of horses were already under 
treatment and several had died. During the months of August and September the 
disease became practically epidemic in the southeastern section of the State, in an 
area which may be described as drained by the Taunton River, as more then eighty 
percent of the total number of recorded cases occurred in Bristol, Norfolk, and Ply- 
mouth Counties. 

That the disease was not reported more promptly was without doubt due to a lack 
of knowledge regarding the disease on the part of horse owners who had not sought 
veterinary advice and also to the mistaken belief that the sickness, which in many 
instances resulted in death within forty-eight hours of the onset of symptoms, was 
caused by poison, indigestion, etc. Where professional service was sought, the vet- 
erinarians, apparently unfamiliar with the disease, did not at first recognize the con- 
dition, in many instances making a diagnosis of heat-stroke, forage poison — especially 
horse-tail weed poison — ptomaine poison, etc. 

Immediately after confirming the report that the disease in horses was prevalent 
in the State, publicity was given by the Division through radio broadcasts, newspaper 
releases, and by letters to inspectors of animals in all cities and towns in the Com- 
monwealth. 

Reports regarding the occurrence of equine encephalomyelitis in the Middle and 
Western States had come to the attention of the Division with increasing frequency 
during the past few years, variously described as cornstalk disease, sleeping sickness, 
spinal menengitis, etc. It was not until the year 1931, however, when as a result 
of study of an epidemic in California, the causative agent of the disease, a specific 
virus, was revealed. Each succeeding year the disease, epidemic in extent, appeared 
farther eastward and southward, as a rule in widely scattered areas, and for the 
first time appeared in Massachusetts this year. 

Following the discovery of a specific virus as the causative agent, it was found 
further that there are at least two, and possibly more, distinct strains of virus, one 
classified as the Western strain — found exclusively in the area west of the Appa- 
lachain mountain chain — and the other as the Eastern and more virulent strain, found 
east of that barrier. Both strains cause identical symptoms, but differ entirely as to 
immunization qualities ; i. e., an animal that has recovered from infection by one 
strain or which has been given preventive or immunization treatment against that 
strain is apparently immune to that particular strain but is susceptible to infection 
by the other strain and may become infected. This knowledge has an important bear- 
ing in reference to treatment, both preventive and curative. 

Brain specimens from Massachusetts cases were submitted to the United States 
Bureau of Animal Industry at Washington for diagnosis and virus of the Eastern 
type was recovered from four of these specimens. 

As this disease occurs invariably during warm weather, generally in areas and 
during periods favorable to the propagation of insect life and rarely if ever affects 
all horses on any one premises, and as outbreaks subside upon the appearance of frosty 
or freezing weather, there is little doubt but that the vective agents are insects of 
the blood-sucking type. The supposition that the mosquito was the carrier of the 



20 P. D. 98 

infection in the Massachusetts epidemic is borne out by the fact that heavy rains 
alternated with periods of extremely hot weather throughout the summer months and 
created conditions unusually favorable to the production of insect life, resulting in 
a heavy infestation of mosquitoes, particularly during the month of. August. 

From data obtainable, deaths in this State took place in about ninety per cent of 
the horses affected. Of those that recovered some did so apparently without treat- 
ment, some with medicinal treatment alone, and some as a result of biological treat- 
ment. Evidence available tends to indicate that vaccination, if given early ; i.e., before 
infection, will convey protection against this disease for a period long enough to 
carry over at least one season. 

Due to failure on the part of owners, from lack of knowledge regarding the dis- 
ease, and delay on the part of veterinarians in reporting cases at first, the exact 
number of deaths is uncertain. By checking with rendering companies, etc., it is 
estimated that the disease was responsible for the death of at least 269 horses in the 
State this year. 

The following tables give information as to the counties, towns, and months in 
which deaths were reported. 
Counties Tozvns June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Total 

Berkshire 2 — — — — — 2 2 

Bristol 17 — — 77 29 — — 106 

Essex 5 — — 1 2 2 — 5 

Hampshire 1 1 — — — — — 1 

Middlesex 16 — — 9 17 — — 26 

Norfolk 18 — — 40 15 — — 55 

Plymouth 21 — 4 32 21 1 1 59 

Suffolk 1 — — 1 1 — — 2 

Worcester 10 — 1 1 8 3 — 13 

Total ~~ 91 1 5 ~^6i 93 6 3 269 



P. D. 98 



21 



Berkshire : (2) 




Dalton _ 


1 


Richmond 


1 


Bristol: (106) 




Attleboro 


7 


Berkley 


5 


Dartmouth 


2 


Dighton „ 


5 


Easton _ 


2 


Fall River _ 


2 


Freetown 


6 


Mansfield 


3 


No. Attleboro 


2 


Norton _ 


4 


Ravnham 


10 


Rehoboth 


?6 


Seekonk „ 


7 


Somerset 


3 


Swansea 


7 


Taunton 


t4 


Westport 


1 


Essex: (5) 




Georgetown 


1 


Gloucester 


1 


Ipswich „ ., 


.... 1 


Merrimac 


.... 1 


Salisbury 


.... 1 



Hampshire: (1) 
Hadley 






Middlesex: (26) 

Ashland 1 

Cambridge 1 



Towns by Counties 

Concord . 1 

Framingham 1 

Holliston 2 

Hopkinton 1 

Newton 1 

Reading 3 

Stow — 3 

Sudbury „ „ 2 

Tyngsboro _ 1 

Waltham 1 

Watertown 3 

Wayland - 2 

Weston „ 2 

Woburn 1 



Norfolk: (55) 

Canton _ 

Cohasset 

Dedham 



4 

2 

1 

Dover 1 

Foxboro 3 

Holbrook .. 5 

Medfield - 1 

Med way 3 

Milton _ 3 

Norwood 1 

Plainville _ 7 

Quincy - _ 1 

Sharon 1 

Stoughton - 4 

Walpole - 3 

Westwood - 7 

Weymouth „ 5 

Wrentham 3 



Plymouth: (59) 

Abington 1 

Bridgewater „ 5 

Brockton 4 

Duxbury 1 

E. Bridgewater 1 

Halifax „ „ 4 

Hanover „ _ 3 

Hingham 5 

Kingston 1 

Lakeville 1 

Marshfield „ 2 

Middleboro - 8 

X or well „ 2 

Pembroke 3 

Plympton „ I 

Rochester 2 

Rockland _ 1 

Scituate 1 

Wareham _ 1 

W. Bridgewater 8 

W T hitman 4 

Suffolk: (2) 

Boston _ 2 

Worcester: (13) 

Douglas - 1 

Gardner - 1 

Hopedale .. 1 

Lunenburg 1 

Mendon - 1 

Shrewsbury „ 2 

Sutton 1 

Uxbridge 3 

Westminster .. 1 



Following is a tabulation of the horse census in Massachusetts as obtained 
the Massachusetts Division of Corporations and Taxation for the year 1937: 



Barnstable 

Berkshire 

Bristol 

Dukes 

Essex 

Franklin . 

Hampden 



278 
2,960 
2,647 

123 

2457 
2.392 
2,119 



Hampshire 

Middlesex 

Nantucket 

Norfolk . 

Plymouth 

Suffolk . 

Worcester 



from 

2,625 

3,887 

45 
1,698 

1,393 

815 

5,430 

28,869 



It is interesting to note that the report for the year 1897, obtained from the same 
source, gives the horse census as 200,404. 

In connection with this outbreak reports were received of deaths in pigeons on or 
adjacent to premises on which horses affected with encephalomyelitis had been re- 
ported, and that the Eastern strain of virus was recovered from the brain of one 
of the pigeons. 

Little is actually known as yet regarding the carrier feature of the disease, the 
source from which the infection is derived, or as to how the virus is perpetuated 



22 P. D. 98 

from year to year. However, owners of horses, especially in areas where the dis- 
ease occurred this year, should be warned against pasturing horses at night and 
advised to have their horses given preventive vaccination prior to mosquito time, 
preferably as early as April in the coming year. 

At the forty-second annual meeting of the United States^ Live Stock Sanitary 
Association held in Chicago, in the section of the program on miscellaneous trans- 
missible diseases, Charles F. Riordan, Director of the Division, read a paper entitled 
Massachusetts Experiences an Invasion of Equine Encephalomyelitis, Eastern Type. 

Public health : The occurrence of several cases of encephalitis in children during 
the period of the epidemic of encephalomyelitis in horses led public health authorities 
to study the possible relationship between the disease affecting horses and that affect- 
ing humans. A result of this study was the recovery of the Eastern type of equine 
encephalomyelitis from the brains of several persons who died of clinically diagnosed 
encephalitis. This discovery connecting the incidence of the disease in humans to 
the disease in animals is of grave importance as a human health problem and adds 
to the responsibility of the Division of Livestock Disease Control in the Prevention 
and control of the spread of this disease. 

ANTHRAX 

Early in the month of November the attention of the Division was called to a 
reported outbreak of anthrax affecting mink on premises in the State where this type 
of fur-bearing animals are raised for commercial purposes. While the investigation 
which was started immediately did not determine the original source of the infection, 
it did result in information of unusual interest. 

Although the raising of fur-bearing animals is an industry engaged in apparently 
to a considerable extent in this State and although there is a large number of farms 
or minkeries scattered throughout the State where mink alone are raised, this out- 
break of anthrax with its resulting deaths was traced to only three premises located 
as follows : Wayland. where 58 out of 100 mink died ; Wilmington, where 7 out of 
approximately 1,000 died; and Lawrence, where 12 out of approximately 500 died. 

The usual diet for mink consists of a mixture of meat, fish, and cereal. The meat 
in many instances is purchased from knackers and persons engaged in the business 
of collecting dead animals. In this outbreak the meat fed was all obtained from the 
same source of supply and in each instance deaths all occurred within a few hours 
after feeding over a period of five days. Contamination of the meat with rat poison 
w r as suspected and the carcass of one dead mink, together with a portion of the 
suspected meat, was submitted to a laboratory connected with the Harvard Medical 
School. This laboratory eventually isolated pure cultures of the baccillus of anthrax 
from both the mink carcass and the meat specimen. 

Each owner had removed the pelts of the dead animals, one owner himself con- 
tracting anthrax which necessitated hospitalization. 

While it was found that flesh taken from carcasses of dead animals (horses and 
cattle) is regularly sold for feeding purposes to persons engaged in the raising of 
all species of fur-bearing animals, the meat in this case was from a horse purchased 
from a local sales stable on October 26 alive and in apparent good health. The 
animal was then destroyed and moved by the knacker to premises used in the handling 
of dead animals, at which premises the hides are removed and the carcasses cut up 
for disposal for rendering purposes, etc. 

This horse was traced back to several different owners without obtaining evidence 
as to where the animal could have become infected with anthrax before being killed 
or where the carcass after death could have become infected. 

All dead animals handled at this establishment during the ten-day period prior 
to the outbreak were traced back to their owners and the cause of death checked 
without obtaining information of any value. The variance in the number of mink 
affected at the different premises is explained by the fact that at Wayland a generous 
supply of the meat from the suspected horse had been fed, whereas at the other two 
places only a very small portion had been mixed with the food. At several other 



P. D. 98 23 

minkeries where meat from the same horse is said to have been used there were no 
unfavorable aftereffects. 

Owners of infected minkeries were required to clean and disinfect all cages in 
which deaths had occurred as well as buckets, pans, food grinders, etc., and to de- 
stroy all remaining meat by burning. The walls of the building used by the knacker 
were scraped and disinfected ; barrels, tools, etc., were cleaned and disinfected ; and 
new cement floors were laid. The pelts from the dead mink were held in quarantine 
and subjected to disinfection in accordance with Federal government requirements, 
after which they were released on approval of the State Department of Public Health. 

The entire investigation was conducted in cooperation with the State Department of 
Public Health and the local office of the United States Bureau of Animal Industry. 

MISCELLANEOUS DISEASES 

Actinomycosis. — (Commonly called "lump jaw.") Seventeen (17) animals sus- 
pected of having this disease were reported during the year. Upon examination 13 
animals were declared affected with the disease, and were condemned and disposed 
of by slaughter; 1 animal was declared not affected; and 3 cases have not yet been 
closed. 

Blackleg. — Preventive treatment was applied to 1,748 animals on 165 premises 
located in 56 towns. This service is rendered without charge upon the request of 
owners of young cattle in districts where pastures infected with the disease are lo- 
cated. 

Glanders. — No case of glanders occurred in Massachusetts during the year. Seven 
(7) horses were reported on suspicion of having the disease but were later released 
after physical examination was made of 1 horse and laboratory examination was 
made of blood samples taken from the remaining 6 horses. 

Johne's disease. — One cow was reported on physical examination as affected with 
this disease. Diagnosis was confirmed by laboratory examination. 

Mange. — (Commonly called "barn itch.") This condition was reported in 17 
head of cattle on 4 premises. 

Avian tuberculosis. — This condition was reported in poultry in one flock of Mar- 
thas Vineyard. Diagnosis was made at the laboratory of the Massachusetts State 
College. 

ANNUAL INSPECTION OF NEAT CATTLE, SHEEP, AND SWINE 
In accordance with section 19, Chapter 129 of the General Laws, the annual in- 
spection of neat cattle, sheep, and swine, and of the premises where kept was ordered 
on November 12, 1937, to be completed on or before January 1, 1938. 

From reports received from the 355 cities and towns in the Commonwealth, in- 
spections were made of 23,048 premises, on which were located 208,445 head of cattle, 
7,334 sheep, 75,312 head of swine, and 2,527 goats. Of the total number of cattle 
reported, 147,636 were listed as dairy cows; 2,314 bulls and 17,275 cows were recorded 
as purebreds. 

Regional meetings of inspectors of animals were held in the month of November 
at Boston, Greenfield, Pittsfield, Springfield, and Worcester, for the purpose of giving 
information and instruction relative to the duties of the inspectors of animals. 



24 



FINAN'CIAL STATEMENT 



P.D. 98 



Appropriation Classification - Appropriation Expenditures 

Director's salary S 4,000.00 S 4,000.00 

Personal services 26,870.00 26,378.55 

Expenses (office) 9,500.00 

Brought forward, 1937 appropriation 121.87 8,991.10 

Personal services, veterinarians and agents 70,800.00 

Brought forward, 1937 appropriation 21.00 69,313.39 

Traveling expenses, veterinarians and agents 20,500.00 

Brought forward, 1937 appropriation 130.68 17,479.56 

Extermination 6,050.00 

Transferred, appropriation for small iten:^ 14.55 

Brought forward, 1937 appropriation 87.96 4,823.09 

Reimbursement for certain cattle killed 43,300.00 

Brought forward, 1937 appropriation 1,883.99 36,751.73 

Reimbursement to towns for inspectors of animals 5,200.00 

Brought forward, 1937 appropriation 117.00 5,278.77 

S188.597.05 $173,016.19 

Unexpended balance 15,580.86 

$188,597.05 S188,597.05 



The average amount paid for cattle slaughtered under the provisions of Chapter 129, 
General Laws, as amended, was $56.62 for registered purebred cattle and $33.85 
for grade cattle. 

There has been received during the year for hemorrhagic septicemia treatments at 
Brighton, $348.00; for calfhood vaccinations, $8.50; and for cattle dealers' licenses, 
in accordance with Chapter 426, Acts of 1935, $2,010.00 (of which amount $1,420.00 
applies to 1938 Licenses). 



Financial Statement verified. 

Approved. 

Geo. E. Murphy, 

Comptroller. 



Respectfully submitted, 

Charles F. Riordan, 

Director. 




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